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Krishi Vigyan Kendra

Lakshadweep

 
 

ON FARM TESTING        

1. OFT on coconut mite

          As  per  the direction of Government of India  a  high power  team  under  the leader ship of  Dr.  HameedKhan,  Project Coordinator   (Plantation)  CPCRI,  Kasaragod,  visited   Agatti, Kavaratti and Kalpeni to conduct survey of Mandari   infestation.  Presence  of  mandari  was  confirmed  at  Kalpeni.   A  training programme on mandari was organized on 12, 13 and 14 January  2000 for Agrl. Officer's and KVK Staff during their visit.   The experts took classes on identification and control  of  coconut mite.

          A team consisting officers of Agrl. Department and  KVK staff under the leader ship of Training Organizer visited Kalpeni  on 10.01.2000 and conducted survey of total trees at Kalpeni  and  its attached islets of Cheriyam, Pitty, Thilakam (1,2,3).  Out of the total one lakh bearing trees 20,000 trees were found  infested with  coconut mites.  Seeing the gravity of the  infestation  and need of immediate checking of further spread an OFT was proposed.

PROBLEM

     1.  The size of the developing nut is  reduced  considerably, resulting  in reduction of Kernel weight and quality  of husks due to mite attack.

     2.  In severely affected bunches up to 30% of the buttons are shed leading to heavy loss to farmers.

     3.  In certain locations when infested nuts were  cut  open the  kernel  was observed to be thicken  but  lesser  in weight by 30%-40% when compared with uninfected nuts. 

     4. Warting and fissures observed on the surface of the  nuts leads to hardening of the husk.  The warting in the  nuts had  made the husks unsuitable for coir  production.  The out turns of the coir has been reduced by 40 %.

    5. The  tender  nuts  with   warting  symptoms  has   reduced acceptability  by  the consumer and  fetches  low  market  price or no market.

     6. The marketable value of nut is reduced by 30% to 40%. 

     7.  The  reduction  in  marketable  value  of  nuts,   copra  contents, poor quality of husks, reduced price for tender  nuts  etc has in turn cripple the economy of the  farming  community of which their very sustenance was dependent. This pest is new to the island and farmers were ignorant about the consequence.

 Treatment:-

     1.  A  systematic survey was conducted at  Kalpeni  and  its  satellite   island  for  assessing  the   magnitude   of eriyophid mite problem.

     2. Affected palms  marked for control operation.

     3. All  young  affected 2 to 6 months old nuts  and  bunches from the affected palms were removed,  burnt/buried  to prevent spread to other areas.

     4. The  affected old nuts when harvested are to be  dehusked  and the husk to be burnt/buried.

     5. Spraying  of  the  affected palms with 2%  Neem  oil  and  Garlic mixture 500 ml per tree (20ml neem oil, 1L  water,  20 g Garlic, 5 g Soap) with the help of climbers.

a)  5g Bar soap dissolved in 1/2 L  water and then  adds  20ml neem oil and stir well.

 b)  Crush 20 g Garlic and dissolve in Half Litre  water and stir.

 c)  Add  a + b

 6. Spraying to be repeated after 30 days. 

Results.

           60%  control in affected trees has been noticed due  to organic control measures, but spread in to un affected areas  are there.

2.  Management  of  important  pests  of  vegetables  by   Organic Pesticides:-

          Pest  attack  is  one  of  the  major  causes  of   low productivity  in  vegetables.   Farmers are  using  highly  toxic pesticides in high concentration to control these pests.  But now a days, eco-friendly pest control methods are recommended  against vegetable  pest, considering health and ecological problems.   On an average about 30% of yield loss is caused by insects.  Much of this  loss can be easily avoided by adopting  proper  eco-friendly methods of pest management.

           Farmers  take  up  spraying  pesticides  without   much understanding   about  the  type  of  pest  and  the   stage   of infestation.   Generally control measures are taken after  severe damage  and  loss due to severe pest attack.  So this particular  OFT  is being proposed to find out the suitable control measures  against major pest of vegetables like white flies, fruit flies and jassids of  brinjal, Epilacna beetles and pumpkin beetles of  bitter  gourd and cucumber fruit flies of bitter gourd and cucumber.

Treatment

1.   Brinjal & Bhindi: Major pests noticed are  Jassids,  Aphids,  mites and fruit borer.

a)   For aphids, jassids and mite very good control was  observed  by  spraying  a mixture of caster Oil, Neem oil,  soap  and  garlic.

     (b)  For jassids a combination of spray (a) and yellow  traps  was more effective than spraying alone.

     (c)  The caster coated yellow trap was effective in trapping  jassids when plants are shake.

     (d)  Mites:-  Fort night interval  spraying  of  diluted kanchi water (starch) on the lower side of  the  leaves  found to be  very  effective. This  is in addition to the control,  Neem Oil, Garlic and soap solution.

      (f) Fruit borer:-

      1. Cut and remove the infested fruits and branches.

      2. Spraying of Neem seeds extracts give good results.  

 ii   Tomato:-    Major pests observed is serpentine  Leaf  minor.  Best control was obtained with Neem oil emulsion.

 iii. Cucumber & Pumpkin:

           Major  pest noticed was serpentine leaf minor.   Control was obtained with Neem oil emulsion.

 iv.  Snake Gourd & Bitter Gourd:

      Main  pest  problems were Fruit flies  and  serpentine  leaf minor

 Control:-

           1. Infested fruit must be cut and removed and buried or  burnt.

           2. Set up traps in 4-6 places.

             Among  the  3  traps tried Banana  +  Furadon  traps showed  better  result than other (Tulasi trap,  Kanchi  (starch) water trap.

 3.  EVALUATION OF PHEROMONE TRAPS FOR THE CONTROL OF  RHINOCEROS  BEETLE. 

            Rhinoceros  beetle  (Oryctes rhinoceros) is  a  serious pest  in    coconut palm and causing of severe  economic  damage.  The  grubs  breed in the soil and the adult beetles feed  on  the young  spear (foliage) of the palm.  The most susceptible  period is the first      2-3 years from planting.  It is estimated that the pest on an  average causes 10% loss in  production  of nuts and the injured  portion  is susceptible  to other pests and diseases.  This pest breeds in decaying organic  debris such  as  farm yard manure, rubbish heaps,  dead  coconut  logs, buried coconut husks mixed with decaying materials.

Product Description:

          -  Slow  release formulation of pheromone  for  Oryctes  rhinoceros.

          -  Effective for mass trapping of adult  beetles,  both  male and female.

           - Eco friendly.

           - Packing hermetically.

           - Longevity  2 to 3 months  depending  on  the  climate  conditions.

 Plot A.   1. Total number of trees in the plot                 94

               2. Number of trees infested                            94

               3. Average number of leaves infested     7.7 (2-15)

               4. Number of spathes infested                          3   

 Plot B.   1. Total number of trees in the plot             74

               2. Number of trees infested                            72

               3. Average number of leaves infested         7.2(3-13)

               4. Number of spathes infested                        3

Results.

     Plot A. Number of beetles trapped in 30 days -  100 Nos.

     Plot B. Number of beetles trapped in 30 days  -  68 Nos.

    Total beetles trapped in 30 days                      - 168 Nos.

 4. OFT ON RECHARGING OF GROUND WATER

          Kiltan  island  in U T of Lakshadweep is a  tiny  coral    island  where  ground  water occurs as a thin  fresh  water  lens floating  over the sea water and is in hydraulic continuity  with sea water.  In general., ground elevation of islands varies  from 1.5  meter MSL, there is limited scope of fresh water  build  up above  the  mean sea level.  Hence any large scale of  draft  of ground  water leads to deterioration of ground water quality  due to  sea  water intrusion.  Earlier conservation of  ground  water wastes  achieved through using large village tanks  (attached  to mosques and houses) for bathing and washing purposes.  Such tanks were cleaned periodically, however with the advent of modern life style the present generation is doing away with these traditional tanks  preferring piped water supply and energized wells  to  this tanks.

           The  present OFT is proposed to recharge  ground  water by  using rain water falling on the terrace or roof top which  is directly connected to the filter media  and ultimately reaches to the well without even a loss of single droplet.

 

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